Following spinal cord injury (SCI) the adult central nervous system (CNS) has a limited but substantial capacity for repair and plastic reorganisation. The degree of reorganisation is determined by a number of factors such as the extent and location of the lesion, the remaining circuit activity within the CNS and the age at injury. However, even in the best cases this spontaneous reorganisation does not lead to full recovery of the affected behaviour but instead often results in a functionally successful but compensatory strategy. Current SCI research focuses on enhancing fibre tract (re-)growth and recovery processes. Two currently promising approaches are the neutralisation of CNS growth inhibitory factors, and rehabilitative training of remaining networks. Independently, both approaches can lead to substantial functional recovery and anatomical reorganisation. In this review we focus on Nogo-A, a neurite growth inhibitory protein present in the adult CNS, and its role in regenerative and plastic growth following SCI. We then discuss the efforts of rehabilitative training and the potential combination of the two therapies.