Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) are involved in the regulation of immune response to infection and in malignant transformation. Several HLA alleles are associated with immunological or malignant diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a potential association of HLA class I and II alleles with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) in immunocompetent patients. We therefore analyzed particular HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-DRB1 alleles in 82 PCNSL patients and compared the data to those in 327 population controls. No significant difference between these two groups was found using Pearson's chi(2) test. These data do not support the hypothesis that HLA alleles play a major role in the pathogenesis of PCNSL.