Medetera Fischer von Waldheim is the most speciose genus in the Medeterinae, with a nearly ubiquitous global distribution. Phylogenetic relationships within Medetera and between Medetera and four other medeterine genera were investigated using mitochondrial(COI, 16S) and nuclear (18S) markers to test morphological hypotheses. Our results confirm most of Bickel’s hypotheses. Thrypticus Gerstäcker shows a sister-group relationship with Medetera + Dolichophorus Lichtwardt. The Medetera species included here split into two clades. One clade corresponds to the M. diadema L. - veles Loew species group sensu Bickel. The second clade is largely composed of the M. apicalis (Zetterstedt) species group sensu Bickel and the M. aberrans Wheeler species group sensu Bickel + Dolichophorus. Although most Medeterinae are associated with plants (mainly trees), species in at least two separate lineages demonstrate a secondary return to terrestrial habitats. The implication of this evolutionary phenomenon is briefly discussed.