Labour migration has become a widespread phenomenon in Kyrgyzstan. Up to 20 per cent of Kyrgyzstan’s population have left in search of better economic opportunities in Russia and Kazakhstan, sending back remittances that account for 30 per cent of GDP (Sadowskaja 2008, Schmidt and Sagynbekova, 2008). Apart from the national scale the positive impact of remittances on household level has been confirmed in
various ways (e.g. Thieme, 2008; 2009; Tynaliev and McLean, 2011). Despite the positive effects of remittances, labour migration and brain drain represent significant obstacles to balanced poverty reduction
throughout the country.