Mitochondrial Ca(2+) signals have been proposed to accelerate oxidative metabolism and ATP production to match Ca(2+)-activated energy-consuming processes. Efforts to understand the signaling role of mitochondrial Ca(2+) have been hampered by the inability to manipulate matrix Ca(2+) without directly altering cytosolic Ca(2+). We were able to selectively buffer mitochondrial Ca(2+) rises by targeting the Ca(2+)-binding protein S100G to the matrix. We find that matrix Ca(2+) controls signal-dependent NAD(P)H formation, respiration, and ATP changes in intact cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that matrix Ca(2+) increases are necessary for the amplification of sustained glucose-dependent insulin secretion in β cells. Through the regulation of NAD(P)H in adrenal glomerulosa cells, matrix Ca(2+) also acts as a positive signal in reductive biosynthesis, which stimulates aldosterone secretion. Our dissection of cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca(2+) signals reveals the physiological importance of matrix Ca(2+) in energy metabolism required for signal-dependent hormone secretion.