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Blocking protein geranylgeranylation is essential for lovastatin-induced apoptosis of human acute myeloid leukemia cells


Xia, Z; Tan, M M; Wong, W Wei-Lynn; Dimitroulakos, J; Minden, M D; Penn, L Z (2001). Blocking protein geranylgeranylation is essential for lovastatin-induced apoptosis of human acute myeloid leukemia cells. Leukemia, 15(9):1398-1407.

Abstract

Lovastatin is an inhibitor of the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, the major regulatory enzyme of the mevalonate pathway. We have previously reported that lovastatin induces a significant apoptotic response in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. To identify the critical biochemical mechanism(s) essential for lovastatin-induced apoptosis, add-back experiments were conducted to determine which downstream product(s) of the mevalonate pathway could suppress this apoptotic response. Apoptosis induced by lovastatin was abrogated by mevalonate (MVA) and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP), and was partially inhibited by farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP). Other products of the mevalonate pathway including cholesterol, squalene, lanosterol, desmosterol, dolichol, dolichol phosphate, ubiquinone, and isopentenyladenine did not affect lovastatin-induced apoptosis in AML cells. Our results suggest that inhibiting geranylgeranylation of target proteins is the predominant mechanism of lovastatin-induced apoptosis in AML cells. In support of this hypothesis, the geranylgeranyl transferase inhibitor (GGTI-298) mimicked the effect of lovastatin, whereas the farnesyl transferase inhibitor (FTI-277) was much less effective at triggering apoptosis in AML cells. Inhibition of geranylgeranylation was monitored and associated with the apoptotic response induced by lovastatin and GGTI-298 in the AML cells. We conclude that blockage of the mevalonate pathway, particularly inhibition of protein geranylgeranylation holds a critical role in the mechanism of lovastatin-induced apoptosis in AML cells.

Abstract

Lovastatin is an inhibitor of the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, the major regulatory enzyme of the mevalonate pathway. We have previously reported that lovastatin induces a significant apoptotic response in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. To identify the critical biochemical mechanism(s) essential for lovastatin-induced apoptosis, add-back experiments were conducted to determine which downstream product(s) of the mevalonate pathway could suppress this apoptotic response. Apoptosis induced by lovastatin was abrogated by mevalonate (MVA) and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP), and was partially inhibited by farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP). Other products of the mevalonate pathway including cholesterol, squalene, lanosterol, desmosterol, dolichol, dolichol phosphate, ubiquinone, and isopentenyladenine did not affect lovastatin-induced apoptosis in AML cells. Our results suggest that inhibiting geranylgeranylation of target proteins is the predominant mechanism of lovastatin-induced apoptosis in AML cells. In support of this hypothesis, the geranylgeranyl transferase inhibitor (GGTI-298) mimicked the effect of lovastatin, whereas the farnesyl transferase inhibitor (FTI-277) was much less effective at triggering apoptosis in AML cells. Inhibition of geranylgeranylation was monitored and associated with the apoptotic response induced by lovastatin and GGTI-298 in the AML cells. We conclude that blockage of the mevalonate pathway, particularly inhibition of protein geranylgeranylation holds a critical role in the mechanism of lovastatin-induced apoptosis in AML cells.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Experimental Immunology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Hematology
Health Sciences > Oncology
Life Sciences > Cancer Research
Language:English
Date:2001
Deposited On:19 Jun 2012 14:03
Last Modified:30 Jul 2020 03:49
Publisher:Nature Publishing Group
ISSN:0887-6924 (P) 1476-5551 (E)
OA Status:Closed
Free access at:Official URL. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.leu.2402196

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