Increasing data suggest that higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] serum concentrations are advantageous for health. At present, strong evidence for causality is available for fracture and fall prevention, while promising epidemiologic and mechanistic studies suggest a key role of vitamin D in the preservation of cardiovascular health, and the prevention of cancer and other common chronic disease. For lower extremity function, fall prevention, hip bone density, and for fracture prevention optimal benefits are observed with 25(OH)D levels of at least 75 nmol/L to 100 nmol/L . This threshold may be reached in 50 % of adults with 800 to 1000 IU vitamin D per day. This manuscript will discuss the evidence of vitamin D in fall and fracture prevention and how these data transfer to the most recent recommendations by the IOF (International Osteoporosis Foundation) and the IOM (Institute of Medicine).