Actinomyces neuii, a species first described in 1994, has proven to be an exception in this genus on account of its aerobic growth, microscopic morphology (no branching), and the types and location of infections. Abscesses and infected atheromas are the most frequent types of infections, followed by infected skin structures, endophthalmitis, and bacteremias, including endocarditis. They are most likely of endogenous origin. To date, approximately 100 cases have been recorded in the literature. Intra-abdominal and intrathoracic infections, however, have not yet been described, and cases of classical actinomycosis seem to be extremely rare. Prognosis has generally been good with antibiotic and/or surgical treatment. Susceptibility to antibiotics has paralleled that of other Actinomyces spp.