Several reports have suggested a role for adenosine in the pathogenesis of chronic airway conditions and this has led to new therapeutic strategies to limit airway inflammation. In this study, detectable levels of adenosine in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from 11 horses with non-infectious lower-airway inflammation and 14 healthy controls are reported, with significantly higher values in horses with airway inflammation. Although these increased levels did not correlate with changes in neutrophil percentage in BAL, a positive association between adenosine levels and signs of lower airway inflammation (clinical score) was observed. These novel findings support the hypothesis that adenosine may contribute to bronchoconstriction and also act as a pro-inflammatory mediator in the bronchoalveolar milieu of horses with airway inflammation. Further investigation of this axis could lead to new approaches for the treatment of highly prevalent lower airway inflammatory conditions in the horse.