Sixteen dogs with acute-onset, non-progressive signs of brain dysfunction and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics compatible with thalamic infarction are described. Topographically the MRI lesions could be grouped in three thalamic regions, namely, paramedian (8/16), extensive dorsal (5/16) and ventrolateral (3/16). Paramedian lesions resulted in signs typical of vestibular dysfunction. Extensive dorsal lesions were associated with vestibular ataxia, circling and contralateral menace response deficits. Ventrolateral lesions resulted in circling and contralateral proprioceptive deficits. In several dogs, regions other than the thalamus were also affected: four extended into the midbrain; six extended to the internal capsule, and two dogs had a second lesion in the cerebellum. Three clinical syndromes were identified in association with thalamic infarction. These signs varied somewhat, most likely because lesions were not confined to specific nuclear boundaries and involved different combinations of thalamic nuclei.