Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most frequent primary hepatic tumour, and 90% of the cases occur in patients with chronic underlying liver disease. Liver transplantation and liver resection are the two curative treatment options. However, liver transplantation cannot be proposed in all patients with HCC due to donor scarcity and the limitations of transplant criteria in this context. Liver resection is as a result becoming the best alternative treatment, providing that liver function is not altered and the future liver remnant volume is adequate. This Chapter focuses on the indications for safe liver resection in HCC patients associated with normal liver parenchyma or with underlying chronic liver disease. The short and long-term outcomes after liver resection for HCC will also be reported.