The objective of the study was to evaluate influenza vaccination coverage in Austria in the season of 2006/07 and to understand motivations and barriers. Two-thousand telephone interviews with individuals over 15 years of age were conducted. The overall influenza vaccination coverage rate was 17.8%. In the elderly (>65 years) the rate was 32.1%, and the adjusted odds ratio of being vaccinated, compared to those not belonging to a high-risk group, was 3.8. Chronically ill persons and health care workers had adjusted odds ratios of 2.6 and 1.5, respectively, while chronically ill elderly persons had an odds ratio of vaccination of 7.0. Minimizing the risk of contracting influenza was the most frequent reason for getting vaccinated (35.2%), and a recommendation by the family doctor was perceived as the major encouraging factor for vaccination (46.4%). The main reason for not getting vaccinated was indifference (>50%). Vaccination coverage in Austria in 2006/07 was low and far behind WHO objectives.