The possibility of quantifying iron content in the topsoil of the slopes of the El Hacho Mountain complex in Southern Spain using imaging spectroscopy is investigated. Laboratory, field and airborne spectrometer (ROSIS) data are acquired, in combination with soil samples, which are analysed for dithionite extractable iron (Fed) content. Analysis of the properties of two iron related absorption features present in laboratory spectra demonstrates good relations, especially between the standard deviation (S.D.) of the values in an absorption feature and the Fed content (R2 = 0.67) as well as the ratio based Redness Index (R2 = 0.51). Such derived relations are less strong for the ROSIS data (R2 for S.D. = 0.26 and R2 for Redness Index = 0.22). The spatial distribution of iron in vegetated areas shows a strong sensitivity of these relations with the presence of vegetation. A combination of both methods shows that the overestimation of the Fed content with the one method is (partly) compensated by the underestimation with the other method.