The adaptation of growth in response to nutritional changes is essential for the proper development of all organisms. Here we describe the identification of the Drosophila homolog of the target of rapamycin (TOR), a candidate effector for nutritional sensing. Genetic and biochemical analyses indicate that dTOR impinges on the insulin signaling pathway by autonomously affecting growth through modulating the activity of dS6K. However, in contrast to other components in the insulin signaling pathway, partial loss of dTOR function preferentially reduces growth of the endoreplicating tissues. These results are consistent with dTOR residing on a parallel amino acid sensing pathway.