The Mongol invasions of Japan in 1274 and 1281 and the myths about the “divine winds” (kamikaze), which apparently had saved Japan against the foreign invaders, were recurrently revived in times when Japan faced foreign crisis. During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, when Japan became an imperial power, the kamikaze myths became an essential part of a national historiography, being closely related to the so-called shinkoku ideology, the ideology of Japan being the “land of the gods”. The essay by the Japanese historian Seno Seiichirō, given here in German translation, clearly shows this development. Seno presents the earliest premodern documents that refer to the land of the gods and the divine winds and further explores the meaning of the kamikaze myth during the early twentieth century as well as its deconstruction after World War II. The introductory essay by J. Fröhlich gives an overview of the aftermaths of the Mongol invasions in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. It analyses whether the Mongol invasions influenced the formation of a Japanese proto-national identity in the medieval period, thus showing that their meaning then differed from their essential role for a Japanese national identity in the modern period.