This article reviews current findings on psychological predictors for a negative marital development and divorce. Theories on divorce are not resumed, as this article focuses exclusively on research data. Results on the significance of personality factors, cognitive variables, communication, attachment, stress, coping etc, are reviewed. The results show that currently important factors predicting the decline of marriages and their dissolution are known, which not only allow a rather reliable prediction, but also offer new possibilities in marital prevention. Whereas a number of assumed variables (such as physical attraction, status) do not reliably predict divorce, two main predictors have been found: neuroticism and a lack of competencies in the domains of marital communication, marital problem solving and individual as well as dyadic coping. These findings are discussed in regard to marital interventions, where three empirically based approaches for the prevention of marital distress are presented.