Two dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) hydraulic cements and one apatite hydraulic cement were implanted in epiphyseal and metaphyseal, cylindrical bone defects of sheep. The in vivo study was performed to assess the biocompatibility of the DCPD cements, using the apatite cement as control. After time periods of 2, 4 and 6 months the cement samples were clinically and histologically evaluated. Histomorphometrically the amount of new bone formation, fibrous tissue and the area of remaining cement were measured over time. In all specimens, no signs of inflammation were detectable either macroscopically or microscopically. All cements were replaced by different amounts of new bone. The two DCPD-cements showed the highest new bone formation and least cement remnants at 6 months, whereas the apatite was almost unchanged over all time periods.