The clinical, haematological, biochemical and bacteriological findings in 56 cows with toxic mastitis are described. In addition to acute mastitis, the most frequent clinical findings were tachycardia in 40 of the cows, anorexia or reduced appetite in 50, reduced ruminal and intestinal motility in 52 and no ruminal and intestinal motility in 39. The most important haematological and biochemical findings were a high haematocrit in 26 of the cows, leucopenia in 23 and a high concentration of urea in 31. In 27 of the cows the secretion of the affected mammary gland did not resemble milk. The most commonly isolated bacteria were Escherichia coli from 26 of the cows and Staphylococcus aureus from 11. Seven of the cows were investigated by an exploratory laparotomy because the principal sign was intestinal in origin, but no abnormalities were found. Seventeen of the cows were euthanased immediately after the diagnostic work, and 14 during the course of their treatment.