Abstract Conclusion: In spite of its absence in the control population, there is questionable evidence for the alteration c.114C->T in the HMX3 gene being implicated in the development of superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD). However, the concept of a complex disease is valid for SSCD and a possible molecular origin can neither be confirmed nor excluded by the results of this study. Objectives: SSCD was first described in 1998 by Minor et al. While the etiology is not clear, findings from both temporal bone CT and histologic studies suggest a congenital or developmental origin. In recent years, a couple of genes regulating inner ear morphogenesis have been described. Specifically, Netrin-1 and HMX3 have been shown to be critically involved in the formation of the SCC. Molecular alterations in these two genes might lead to a disturbed development of this canal and might represent an explanation for SSCD. Methods: DNA was extracted from whole blood of 15 patients with SSCD. The coding sequences of Netrin-1 and HMX3 were amplified by PCR and sequenced. Results: One sequence alteration, heterozygous c.114C->T (conservative change without alteration of amino acid) in exon 1 of HMX3, was detected in 2 of 15 patients but not in 300 control chromosomes. The study was supported in part by the Emilia-Guggenheim-Schnurr-Foundation, Basel, Switzerland.