The aim of this study was to compare cross-sectional nanohardness, measured using an ultra-microindentation system, with mineral content, from transversal microradiography, of artificial enamel caries lesions. Sections (85 +/- 10 microm) from 16 bovine enamel samples with artificial caries were prepared. The mineral content and cross-sectional nanohardness at known depths from the surface were compared. Both methods showed lesion profiles with a surface layer. The determination of nanohardness seems limited to lesions with a mineral content >45 vol%. There was a moderate linear relationship between mineral content and the square root of nanohardness (R2 = 0.81). It was concluded that the conversion of cross-sectional hardness into mineral content remains questionable and cannot be recommended.