Background: The aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics and surgical outcome of acquired comitant non-accommodative esotropia without obvious cause in children with an early onset ≤ three years of age.
Patients and Methods: 24 consecutive patients (13 females) with acquired comitant non-accommodative esotropia underwent strabismus surgery. Outcome measures included amount of deviation and level of binocularity at last follow-up.
Results: An acute onset of strabismus was observed in 83 % of patients. Accompanying features such as diplopia, covering one eye or stumbling were observed in 40 % of the children. Cycloplegic retinoscopy revealed a mild to moderate hypermetropia in all children (mean hypermetropia + 2.2 diopters). 90.5 % of children were aligned within 8 PD of orthotropia. 81 % regained normal stereovision (Lang I/II).
Conclusions: All children exhibited the typical features of acute acquired comitant esotropia (AACE) type II (Burian-Franceschetti). Collective characteristics of this form of strabismus are a comitant and relatively large deviation, mild hypermetropia, a potential of normal binocular cooperation and absence of an accommodative component and neurological pathology. Time and suddenness of strabismus onset may be less helpful in defining this entity.