Disturbances of sleep-wake rhythms are an important problem in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Circadian rhythms are regulated by clock genes. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is overexpressed in neurons in AD and is the only cytokine that is increased in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Our data show that TGF-β2 inhibits the expression of the clock genes Period (Per)1, Per2, and Rev-erbα, and of the clock-controlled genes D-site albumin promoter binding protein (Dbp) and thyrotroph embryonic factor (Tef). However, our results showed that TGF-β2 did not alter the expression of brain and muscle Arnt-like protein-1 (Bmal1). The concentrations of TGF-β2 in the CSF of 2 of 16 AD patients and of 1 of 7 patients with mild cognitive impairment were in the dose range required to suppress the expression of clock genes. TGF-β2-induced dysregulation of clock genes may alter neuronal pathways, which may be causally related to abnormal sleep-wake rhythms in AD patients.