Primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL), a rare variant of extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, may cause various neurological symptoms and signs. The best therapeutic strategy is still a matter of debate. High-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) is the most active compound and should be used as the backbone for any chemotherapy applied. Several other chemotherapeutic drugs have been assessed in combination with HD-MTX, but no standard has yet been defined. Whole-brain radiotherapy is active against PCNSL, but typically does not confer long-lasting remission and is associated with significant neurotoxicity in many patients. The recently published G-PCNSL-SG1 trial has shown that consolidating whole-brain radiotherapy after HD-MTX-based chemotherapy does not prolong overall survival and may therefore be deferred. Combined systemic and intraventricular polychemotherapy, or high-dose chemotherapy followed by stem cell transplantation may offer cures to younger patients. Improving treatment regimens without adding significant (neuro-)toxicity should be the focus of ongoing and future studies.