The usefulness of MRI-based neuromorphometry for the investigation of single patients is described. A longitudinal cortical thickness analysis in a patient revealed lateral temporal lobe atrophy, suggesting rather semantic than frontotemporal dementia. A boy
with the diagnosis of ADHD and control boys were compared and showed cortical thickness increases in the patient in the orbitofrontal cortex contradicting ADHD and suggesting disturbed social behaviour. The multiple synaesthetes E.S. was compared with control groups and showed hyperconnectivity between auditory and gustatory brain regions suggesting that interval-taste synaesthesia is rooted in anatomical alterations. McLeod syndrome patients were investigated and revealed severe atrophy of the caudate nucleus bilateral across time. Additionally, statistical recommendations for the comparison of MRI data of single patients are provided.