Lung transplant recipients (LTRs) are prone to medical complications and emergencies due to the transplanted organ being in constant direct contact with the environment and the need for life-long profound immunosuppression (IS). As a result of these specific circumstances, the medical and surgical management of LTRs frequently differs from usual standard care. Therefore, we outline here some of the principles we take into account when dealing with the most frequent medical emergencies encountered in our lung transplant cohort in Zurich. The main topics dealt with are: diagnostics and treatment of infections, gastrointestinal emergencies, IS and other medication issues as well as work-up of unclear inflammatory signs and peri-operative precautions in LTRs. Early post-operative transplant complications, rare medical emergencies and surgical problems are not covered. Our report is intended to help internists and pulmonologists new to the field to obtain a better understanding of the peculiarities of LTRs and their management.