Progress in molecular biology has facilitated a new classification for melanoma. Melanomas today are considered as a heterogeneous group of tumors. The different subtypes are characterized by specific genetic alterations, including mutations in kinase, such as B-RAF or c-kit. New medications like vemurafenib have been developed and are available for the systemic therapy of advanced melanomas in subpopulations identified by mutation tests. In addition, interferon therapy holds the highest promises to dates in subpopulations of patients characterized by microscopic lymph node involvement and ulceration of the primary tumor. These developments are the first steps resulting in a personalized treatment approach for individuals affected by melanoma.