Sex steroids in synergy with prostaglandins (PG) are involved in the regulation of cyclic ovarian function. In this study, we investigated the mRNA expression of three genes involved in arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism and hence PG production in domestic cats: PG-endoperoxide synthase (PTGS2), PGF(2α) synthase (PGFS) and PGE(2) synthase (PGES). Feline endometria (n = 16) were collected at oestrus and mid and late phases of pseudopregnancy. In addition, the effects of E(2) and/or P(4) on PG secretion and gene expression on endometrial explants were studied in an in vitro culture system. Expression levels of all examined genes were up-regulated at the mid phase of pseudopregnancy. The effects of E(2) and/or P(4) treatment on both PG secretion and expression of the genes were observed after 12 h of culture. Expression of PGES was significantly up-regulated by E(2) plus P(4) at oestrus and the mid phase of pseudopregnancy and was also up-regulated by a single treatment with P(4) at late pseudopregnancy (p < 0.05). Simultaneous incubation with E(2) and P(4) up-regulated PTGS2 gene expression at oestrus and mid-luteal phase (p < 0.05). Progesterone plus E(2) significantly increased PGE(2) secretion at oestrus and the mid phase of pseudopregnancy. However, treatment with E(2) and/or P(4) affected neither PGF(2α) secretion nor PGFS expression at any phase after 12 h of culture. The overall findings indicate that genes involved in PG synthesis are up-regulated at the mid phase of pseudopregnancy. An increase in PGE(2) secretion and up-regulation of PGES and PTGS2 are the main responses of the endometrium to treatment with E(2) and P(4) at oestrus and the mid phase of pseudopregnancy in the cat. These data support the hypothesis that ovarian sex steroids via endometrial PGE(2) are involved in endocrine homoeostasis, especially at oestrus and the mid, but not the late, phase of pseudopregnancy in cats.