Allogenic BMT has been successfully performed as a treatment for hematologic diseases with an expected long-term survival. This survival is truncated by respiratory complications including airway obstruction especially BO. Chronic GVHD has been reported to precede almost all cases reported. LTx has become a therapeutic life-saving option for patients with end-stage lung disease that maybe offered for the treatment of GVHD. We report a multi-center experience of pediatric LTx following BMT in 11 patients age- and gender-matched with 11 controls who received LTx for end-stage lung disease secondary to CF. Overall death was 36.4% over a follow-up period of 19 months (range 3-36 months) for the cases and 27.3% for the control group followed for 17 months (range 8-32 months). Median FEV(1) one yr post-transplant for the cases was 78% predicted compared with 67.3% predicted for the controls. The median for episodes of infection was comparable at a median of one episode per patient through the entire follow-up period among both groups. Acute rejection episodes were significantly higher in the control group with a median of one episode per patient in the control group compared to none within the cases. Our data suggest that LTx may be a valuable therapeutic option for children with end-stage lung disease post-BMT with comparable survival outcome to that after LTx in children for other indications such as CF. Hospital stay was significantly longer in our case group. Infection rate was comparable between groups albeit type of infection varied. Significantly and of interest is that acute rejection episodes were non-existent in these cases.