Sex Hormones not only regulate reproductive function, but they also play a prominent role in the biology and physiology of several organs/tissues and in the pathophysiology of several diseases. During the last two decades, the information on the mechanisms of action of sex hormones, such as estrogens and androgens, has rapidly evolved from the conventional nuclear receptor dependent mechanisms to include additional non-nuclear, non-genomic and receptor-independent mechanisms. This highlights the need to update the current knowledge on sex hormones and their mode of action. Increasing evidence that exogenous/epigenetic factors can influence sex hormone production and action highlights the need to update our knowledge on the mechanisms involved. This book provides a systematic and updated overview of the male/female sex-hormones and their impact in the biology and physiology of various organs. Additionally, the book discusses their positive and negative association with the pathophysiology of various diseases (e.g. osteoporosis, cardiovascular-disease, hypogonadism, reproduction, cancer) and their therapeutic potential.