INTRODUCTION: Biomarkers, such as C-reactive protein [CRP] and procalcitonin [PCT], are insufficiently sensitive or specific to stratify patients with sepsis. We investigate the prognostic value of pancreatic stone protein/regenerating protein (PSP/reg) concentration in patients with severe infections. METHODS: PSP/reg, CRP, PCT, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 beta (IL1-β), IL-6 and IL-8 were prospectively measured in cohort of patients ≥ 18 years of age with severe sepsis or septic shock within 24 hours of admission in a medico-surgical intensive care unit (ICU) of a community and referral university hospital, and the ability to predict in-hospital mortality was determined. RESULTS: We evaluated 107 patients, 33 with severe sepsis and 74 with septic shock, with in-hospital mortality rates of 6% (2/33) and 25% (17/74), respectively. Plasma concentrations of PSP/reg (343.5 vs. 73.5 ng/ml, P < 0.001), PCT (39.3 vs. 12.0 ng/ml, P < 0.001), IL-8 (682 vs. 184 ng/ml, P < 0.001) and IL-6 (1955 vs. 544 pg/ml, P < 0.01) were significantly higher in patients with septic shock than with severe sepsis. Of note, median PSP/reg was 13.0 ng/ml (IQR: 4.8) in 20 severely burned patients without infection. The area under the ROC curve for PSP/reg (0.65 [95% CI: 0.51 to 0.80]) was higher than for CRP (0.44 [0.29 to 0.60]), PCT 0.46 [0.29 to 0.61]), IL-8 (0.61 [0.43 to 0.77]) or IL-6 (0.59 [0.44 to 0.75]) in predicting in-hospital mortality. In patients with septic shock, PSP/reg was the only biomarker associated with in-hospital mortality (P = 0.049). Risk of mortality increased continuously for each ascending quartile of PSP/reg. CONCLUSIONS: Measurement of PSP/reg concentration within 24 hours of ICU admission may predict in-hospital mortality in patients with septic shock, identifying patients who may benefit most from tailored ICU management.