The introduction of transrectal colour Doppler sonography (CDS) has allowed the evaluation of luteal blood flow (LBF) in cows. Because appropriate angiogenesis plays a decisive role in the functioning of the corpus luteum (CL), studies on LBF may provide valuable information about the physiology and pathophysiology of the CL. Studies on cyclic cows have shown that progesterone concentrations in blood plasma can be more reliably predicted by LBF than by luteal size (LS), especially during the regression phase of the CL. In contrast with non-pregnant cows, a significant increase in LBF is seen in pregnant cows during the third week after insemination. However, because there are high interindividual variations in LBF between animals, LBF is not useful for the early diagnosis of pregnancy. Determination of LBF is more sensitive than LS for detecting the effects of acute systemic inflammation and exogenous hormones on the CL. Cows with low progesterone levels have smaller CL during the mid-luteal phase, but LBF related to LS did not differ between cows with low and high progesterone levels. In conclusion, LBF determined by CDS provides additional information about luteal function compared with LS and plasma progesterone concentrations, but its role concerning fertility in the cow is yet to be clarified.