The human footprint is increasing across the world’s natural habitats, causing large negative impacts on the survival of many species. In order to successfully mitigate the negative effects on species’ survival, it is crucial to understand their responses to human-induced changes. This paper examines the effect of one such disturbance, logging, on Sumatran orangutans – a critically endangered great ape. Orangutan population densities may decrease or remain stable after logging, but data on the effects of logging on the behavior of individuals is scant. Here, we provide individual-level behavioral data based on direct observations in 2003–2008 at the Ketambe (Sumatra, Indonesia) research area (partly subject to intense selective logging) in order to assess responses of Sumatran orangutans to logging. Logging significantly negatively affected forest structure and orangutan food resources, specifically important fallback and liana-derived foods. Individual orangutans behaved differently between logged and pristine forest; they moved more and rested less in logged forest. With the exception of figs, diet composition remained overall similar. Altogether, life after logging seems energetically more expensive for orangutans. Based on the results of this study, we provide recommendations for conservation research and guidelines for reduced-impact logging.