The present study describes in primates the effects of a spinal cord injury on the number and size of the neurons in the magnocellular part of the red nucleus (RNm), the origin of the rubrospinal tract, and evaluates whether a neutralization of Nogo-A reduces the lesioned-induced degenerative processes observed in RNm. Two groups of monkeys were subjected to unilateral section of the spinal cord affecting the rubrospinal tract; one group was subsequently treated with an antibody neutralizing Nogo-A; the second group received a control antibody. Intact animals were also included in the study. Counting neurons stained with a monoclonal antibody recognizing non-phosphorylated epitopes on neurofilaments (SMI-32) indicated that their number in the contralesional RNm was consistently inferior to that in the ipsilesional RNm, in a proportion amounting up to 35%. The lesion also induced shrinkage of the soma of the neurons detected in the contralesional RNm. Infusing an anti-Nogo-A antibody at the site of the lesion did not increase the proportion of SMI-32 positive rubrospinal neurons in the contralesional RNm nor prevent shrinkage.