The Nogo-66 receptor (NgR) plays a critical role in restricting axon regeneration in the central nervous system. This inhibitory action is in part mediated by a neuronal receptor complex containing p75NTR, a multifunctional receptor also well known to trigger cell death upon binding to neurotrophins such as NGF. In the present study, we show that Pep4 and NEP1-40, which are two peptides derived from the Nogo-66 sequence that modulate NgR-mediated neurite outgrowth inhibition, prevent NGF-stimulated p75NTR-dependent death of cultured embryonic motor neurons. They also confer protection on spinal cord motor neurons after neonatal sciatic nerve axotomy. These findings demonstrate an as-yet-unknown function of NgR in maintaining neuronal survival that may be relevant for motor neuron development and degeneration.