The lateral ventricle (LV) of the adult rodent brain harbors neural stem cells (NSCs) that continue to generate new neurons throughout life. NSCs located in defined areas of the LV walls generate progenitors with distinct transcriptional profiles that are committed to specific neuronal fates. Here, we assessed if such diversity of NSCs also exist in the adult common marmoset, a widely used primate species in basic and clinical neuroscience research. We first investigated the 3D distributions of proliferative progenitors and committed neuroblasts in the marmoset forebrain. In addition to these maps, we assessed the spatial presence of divergent progenitor populations based on their expression of defined transcription factors, that is, Dlx2, Pax6, Tbr2, and Ngn2 which are differentially expressed by γ-aminobutyric acidergic versus glutamatergic progenitors in the adult rodent forebrain. In striking contrast to rodents, glutamatergic progenitors were only sparse in neonates and absent from the adult LV, whilst present in the hippocampus. Our analyses highlight major differences in the diversity of NSCs of the marmoset LV compared with rodents and emphasize the need to address NSCs diversity in evolutionary higher order mammals concomitantly to rodents.