Patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) have proatherogenic dyslipidemia. We analyzed predictors of low-density lipoproteins' (LDLs) size in patients with OSA. In a cross-sectional study including 58 participants with OSA (30 without the metabolic syndrome [MetS] and 28 with MetS), we evaluated the size of LDL by gradient gel electrophoresis. Compared with patients without the MetS, those with MetS showed lower LDL size (P = .007), due to a reduction in large LDL-I particles (P = .002) and an increase in small, dense LDL-IIIA (P = .048) and LDL-IIIB (P = .037). The size of LDL correlated inversely with age (r = -.268, P = .042) and serum triglycerides (r = -.364, P = .005), and positively with serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (r = .335, P = .010). In multiple regression analysis, the presence of the MetS was the only independent predictor of LDL size (P = 0.015). In patients with OSA, MetS is an independent predictor of LDL size and subclasses, whereas the severity of OSA does not contribute independently to alterations in LDL phenotype.