This study compares the effects of two short multiple-sprint exercise (MSE) (6 × 6 s) sessions with two different recovery durations (30 s or 180 s) on the slow component of oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O(2)) during subsequent high-intensity exercise. Ten male subjects performed a 6-min cycling test at 50% of the difference between the gas exchange threshold and [Formula: see text]O(2peak) (Δ50). Then, the subjects performed two MSEs of 6 × 6 s separated by two intersprint recoveries of 30 s (MSE(30)) and 180 s (MSE(180)), followed 10 min later by the Δ50 (Δ50(30) and Δ50(180), respectively). Electromyography (EMG) activities of the vastus medialis and lateralis were measured throughout each exercise bout. During MSE(30), muscle activity (root mean square) increased significantly (p ≤ 0.04), with a significant leftward-shifted median frequency of the power density spectrum (MDF; p ≤ 0.01), whereas MDF was significantly rightward-shifted during MSE(180) (p = 0.02). The mean [Formula: see text]O(2) value was significantly higher in MSE(30) than in MSE(180) (p < 0.001). During Δ50(30), [Formula: see text]O(2) and the deoxygenated hemoglobin ([HHb]) slow components were significantly reduced (-27%, p = 0.02, and -34%, p = 0.003, respectively) compared with Δ50. There were no significant modifications of the [Formula: see text]O(2) slow component in Δ50(180) compared with Δ50 (p = 0.32). The neuromuscular and metabolic adaptations during MSE(30) (preferential activation of type I muscle fibers evidenced by decreased MDF and a greater aerobic metabolism contribution to the required energy demands), but not during MSE(180), may lead to reduced [Formula: see text]O(2) and [HHb] slow components, suggesting an alteration in motor units recruitment profile (i.e., change in the type of muscle fibers recruited) and (or) an improved muscle O(2) delivery during subsequent exercise.