In plants, receptor-like kinases regulate many processes during reproductive and vegetative development. The Arabidopsis subfamily of Catharanthus roseus RLK1-like kinases (CrRLK1Ls) comprises 17 members with a putative extracellular carbohydrate-binding malectin-like domain. Only little is known about the functions of these proteins, although mutant analyses revealed a role during cell elongation, polarized growth, and fertilization. However, the molecular nature of the underlying signal transduction cascades remains largely unknown. CrRLK1L proteins are also involved in biotic and abiotic stress responses. It is likely that carbohydrate-rich ligands transmit a signal, which could originate from cell wall components, an arriving pollen tube, or a pathogen attack. Thus, post-translational modifications could be crucial for CrRLK1L signal transduction and ligand binding.