Brachial arterial occlusion is rare in children and adolescents. Once a traumatic cause is excluded, the differential diagnosis consists of a variety of rare conditions. We report the case of a 12-year-old girl whose presenting symptoms--an absent radial pulse and Raynaud's phenomenon of the right hand--could be easily mistaken for a vasculitis. She was found to have arterial thoracic outlet syndrome with right subclavian artery compression and aneurysm formation caused by an anomalous first rib and consecutive thromboembolic occlusion of the brachial artery. The diagnosis and differential diagnosis of this condition are reviewed.