A prospective evaluation of 74 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with cardiopulmonary complaints revealed six patients (8.1 percent) with pulmonary hypertension with elevated right ventricular systolic over right atrial pressure of 58 +/- 8 mm Hg (range, 49 to 66 mm Hg), as documented by Doppler echocardiography. A thromboembolic cause was excluded by normal lung perfusion scans. Electrocardiographic and roentgenographic features of pulmonary hypertension were present in five patients. Two patients died three and nine months after diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension. Autopsy revealed plexogenic pulmonary arteriopathy in both. The observation of six patients with primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) in a cohort of 1,200 HIV-infected subjects corresponding to an incidence of 0.5 percent is striking and suggests a possible association of PPH with HIV infection.