Land ecosystems, in particular forest ecosystems, are under increasing pressure from environmental changes such as population growth, global warming, wildfires, forest insects, and diseases. Data from hyperspectral sensors can be used to map forest species and determine biophysical and biochemical properties. Modeling plays an important role in accurate determination of ecosystem properties. Radiative transfer models are used to understand how radiation interacts with the atmosphere and the Earth’s terrestrial surface and to correct observed radiances to surface reflectance. Canopy models are used to infer through inversion quantitative information from hyperspectral data on canopy structure and foliage biochemistry. This article presents an overview on combining hyperspectral sensing with canopy radiative transfer models to derive ecosystem information products.