Fibrinogen is in a central position in the coagulation system, playing an important role in platelet aggregation and establishing the fibrin network. Fibrinogen is also the first coagulation factor to become critically low during surgery and after major trauma. Hemostatic support has traditionally involved using transfusion of allogeneic blood products, including fresh frozen plasma; however, there is a lack of conclusive evidence supporting the clinical effectiveness of fresh frozen plasma in these situations. Early, targeted fibrinogen substitution may be preferable in terms of speed of administration and clinical effectiveness, with recent studies adding to the weight of evidence demonstrating the potential to significantly reduce blood loss and transfusion requirements in surgical and severe trauma patients with this approach. The availability of point-of-care testing using viscoelastic techniques to guide fibrinogen substitution has enabled the development of transfusion algorithms that lead to individualized, goal-directed, and targeted use of fibrinogen concentrates to improve clinical outcomes. Fibrinogen replacement has become the standard-of-care in several major surgical centers in Europe and is recommended in current European trauma treatment guidelines. Future prospective studies will help to establish the critical threshold and target levels for fibrinogen substitution in different acute-care situations and should encourage more widespread use of this rational and effective approach to the treatment of bleeding-induced coagulopathies.