The function of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in DNA replication and repair is to form a sliding clamp with replication factor C (RF-C) tethering DNA polymerase delta or epsilon to DNA. In addition, PCNA has been found to interact directly with various proteins involved in cell cycle regulation. The crystal structure of yeast PCNA shows that the protein forms a homotrimeric ring lining a hole through which double-stranded DNA can thread, thus forming a moving platform for DNA synthesis. Human and yeast PCNA are highly conserved at a structural and functional level. We determined the solution structure of functionally active human PCNA by small-angle neutron scattering. Our measurements strongly support a trimeric ring-like structure of functionally active PCNA in solution, and the data are in good agreement with model calculations based on the crystal structure from yeast PCNA. The human PCNA used in the small-angle neutron scattering experiments was active before and after the measurements in a RF-C independent and a RF-C dependent assay suggesting that the trimeric structure is the in vivo functional form.