As part of the Swiss National Research Program for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease, body weight and length of the participants were recorded and eating habits were assessed by the 24-h-recall method and dietary history. The body mass index was found to increase with age, pointing to excessive energy intake. The lower the socioeconomic group, the higher the index. Men eat more meat and meat products but less fruit than women, and drink more alcohol. In the French-speaking part of Switzerland, significantly more cheese and more alcohol, but less meat, brown bread and milk are consumed than in the German-speaking part. The consumption of edible fats and fat-containing food differs as between the two parts of the country. In certain age groups, a low positive correlation is observed between total plasma cholesterol and fat ingestion, and a low inverse correlation between total cholesterol and milk consumption and frequency of meals.