Assessments were made of 945 consecutive hospital patients with regard to a relation between borderline low thyroid function (recognised by a slightly raised thyroid stimulating hormone), thyroid autoimmunity, serum cholesterol, and coronary heart disease. Men and women with a thyroid autoimmunity, serum cholesterol, and coronary heart disease. Men and women with a thyroid stimulating hormone of 4.0 mU/l or over had a higher prevalence of coronary heart disease than did age-matched controls, and this difference was significant in women. The excess of coronary heart disease was not explained by an excess of other risk factors such as a high cholesterol, hypertension, smoking, and diabetes. Women with thyroid antibodies had a slightly higher prevalence of coronary heart disease despite the unexpected finding of a lower serum cholesterol. The data point to an association between borderline thyroid function and autoimmunity and coronary heart disease which is not mediated through a raised serum cholesterol.