PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to evaluate the most current strategies of surgical treatment for cholangiocarcinoma including liver resection and transplantation. RECENT FINDINGS: More aggressive surgical approaches have emerged over the past decade to treat patients previously considered to have unresectable lesions, which include combined hepatectomy with vascular resection, liver mass manipulation, oncological nontouch technique and liver transplantation. SUMMARY: Cholangiocarcinoma can occur anywhere along the biliary system. Its detection rate, and consequently its incidence, has risen possibly because of improvements in diagnostic imaging. Cholangiocarcinomas are presently understood within three distinct categories: intrahepatic, perihilar and distal tumors. The perihilar type is the most common, followed by the distal and intrahepatic types. This division has therapeutic relevance because the type of surgery depends on the anatomical location and extension of the tumor. This review will primarily focus on those circumstances in which a hepatectomy is required, which provides the greatest chance of cure. In this setting, liver transplantation for perihilar cholangiocarcinoma has resurged as an excellent option for a selective group of patients, when associated with a neoadjuvant chemoradiation protocol. Despite more aggressive surgical approaches, many cases remain unresectable with a poor prognosis.