Liver transplantation has become the mainstay for the treatment of end-stage liver disease, hepatocellular cancer and some metabolic disorders. Its main drawback, though, is the disparity between the number of donors and the patients needing a liver graft. In this review we will discuss the recent changes regarding organ allocation, extended donor criteria, living donor liver transplantation and potential room for improvement. The gap between the number of donors and patients needing a liver graft forced the transplant community to introduce an objective model such as the modified model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) in order to obtain a transparent and fair organ allocation system. The use of extended criteria donor livers such as organs from older donors or steatotic grafts is one possibility to reduce the gap between patients on the waiting list and available donors. Finally, living donor liver transplantation has become a standard procedure in specialized centers as another possibility to reduce the donor shortage. Recent data clearly indicate that center experience is of major importance in achieving good results. Great progress has been made in recent years. However, further research is needed to improve results in the future.