In this chapter, we present a set of concepts and tools for defining and examining strategic choice that are drawn from behavioral economics and discuss how they can be applied to and tested with neuroscience techniques. The standard language for studying strategic choice in economics is game theory. Game theory provides concrete mathematical formulas for linking strategic actions to rewarding payoffs. After outlining the four components necessary to make predictions about strategic social behavior, we present recent evidence that the computations predicted by game theory in specific strategic choice contexts are reflected in the brain. In addition, we discuss links between strategic decision making and the psychological concept of theory of mind. We conclude by suggesting that developing mathematical models of social and strategic actions may aid in the understanding of how the brain implements typical choice behavior as well as categorizing dysfunctions that lead to aberrant behavior in psychiatric disorders.