The growth of neuroeconomics as an academic discipline has been inextricably tied to the development of research methods to study brain function and its relationship to behavior. The aim of this chapter is to give an overview of these methods at a cursory level, while at the same time referring the reader to excellent textbooks and primary research articles for more in-depth information. The chapter focuses primarily on the conceptual issues involved in choosing a research technique and evaluating results using different techniques. As such, it is primarily intended for those who are new to neuroeconomics and cognitive neuroscience and who seek guidance on how to evaluate the strengths and limitations of published work. Accordingly, each technique is introduced in conjunction with specific examples drawn from recent neuroeconomic studies.