Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients worldwide. It is unclear whether HIV-related outcomes are affected by HBV coinfection. We compared virological suppression and immunological recovery during antiretroviral therapy (ART) of patients of different HBV serological status in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. CD4 cell recovery during ART was significantly impaired in hepatitis B surface antigen-positive patients and in those with anti-hepatitis B core antigen alone compared with HBV-uninfected patients, despite similar virological efficacy of ART. CD4 increase in patients with resolved HBV infection was similar to that in HBV-uninfected individuals.